Shannon O'Neil, a Mexico expert from the Council on Foreign Relations, explained that Marcelo Ebrard, who was mayor between and , and his predecessor, Obrador, "went street by street in the Centro Historico and got rid of the ambulantes [unregistered street vendors]. It's a variant of the broken windows theme. Other types of crime have fallen as well. In , the U. Department of State dropped its "critical crime level" warning for Mexico City.
Police patrols, security cameras, and a relentless focus on reducing crime in in upper-middle-class neighborhoods such as Polanco, Condesa, and La Roma have helped change the city. In recent years Mexico City has also achieved impressive reductions in assaults, robberies, and violent crime. In , inter-gang conflicts in Mexico City, the largest urban hub in the country, accounted for about 1 percent of the total number of drug-related murders reported in Mexico.
Tapia looked up to a row of aging, graffiti-smeared cement apartment buildings with heavy grates over their windows. Mexico City's success in reducing crime helped fellow PRD politician Miguel Mancera win a landslide victory in the race to replace Ebrard as the city's mayor.
During the campaign, Mancera claimed that security was his first policy priority. He promised to put "police by your side in the community" and to "keep reducing crime. In Mexico City, the police benefit from a favorable power dynamic. Although there are rumors that some trafficking organizations might be trying to muscle their way into Mexico City's retail drug markets, the city is generally not a focal point for cartel violence. The police enjoy the benefit of being the most powerful armed force on the streets.
In other parts of Mexico, where local police offices are short-staffed and poorly equipped to face threats from cartel members, the federal government has used the army and federal police to battle drug traffickers.
Aside from a couple of high-profile yet isolated incidents, such as the triple homicide at the capital's airport and the pair of decapitated bodies found at an upscale shopping mall in , Mexico City has largely been spared from the grisly violence affecting other parts of the country. The first few weeks of , however, have put Mexico City's police on alert.
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In a hour period between Friday, January 11 and Saturday January 12, a number of disturbing incidents occurred in Mexico's city's more dangerous, outlying neighborhoods. On Friday night, gunmen killed an year-old man near a known outdoor drug depot. An hour later, three men were found blindfolded and tied up, killed by multiple bullet wounds. On January 12, two men were killed while drinking in the street.
A few hours later, gunmen stepped out of a car and killed three men in the same area. In total 11 people were killed in the span of 24 hours and 22 people were killed over the course of the weekend. Still, unlike other parts of the country, Mexico City is not likely to emerge as a narco-violence hotspot. As security analyst Alejandro Hope explained, "Recent killings are mostly about control of the retail drug market. It may have been a flare-up between rival gangs -- rather serious, but nothing that alters the main insight that Mexico City tends to be safer than, say, Monterrey, just because it has far many more cops.
The heavy police presence discourages criminals from operating in plain sight, and a network of public security cameras provides an additional deterrent. Plus, for organized criminal groups, operating in Mexico City attracts unwanted political attention that could hurt their more lucrative smuggling operations in other parts of the country.
With a growing middle class consumer market for such expensive consumer goods, the industrial base of Mexico expanded to meet the demand. The government fostered the development of consumer goods industries directed toward domestic markets by imposing high protective tariffs and other barriers to imports.
The share of imports subject to licensing requirements rose from 28 percent in to an average of more than 60 percent during the s and about 70 percent in the s. Industry accounted for 22 percent of total output in , 24 percent in , and 29 percent in The share of total output arising from agriculture and other primary activities declined during the same period, while services stayed constant. The government promoted industrial expansion through public investment in agricultural, energy, and transportation infrastructure.
Cities grew rapidly during these years, reflecting the shift of employment from agriculture to industry and services. The urban population increased at a high rate after Growth of the urban labor force exceeded even the growth rate of industrial employment, with surplus workers taking low-paying service jobs.
Mexico's strong economic performance continued into the s, when GDP growth averaged about 7 percent overall and about 3 percent per capita.
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Consumer price inflation averaged only 3 percent annually. Manufacturing remained the country's dominant growth sector, expanding 7 percent annually and attracting considerable foreign investment. Mining grew at an annual rate of nearly 4 percent, trade at 6 percent, and agriculture at 3 percent.
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By Mexico had diversified its export base and become largely self-sufficient in food crops , steel , and most consumer goods. Although its imports remained high, most were capital goods used to expand domestic production. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Further information: Economic history of Mexico. Part of a series on the. Spanish rule. First Republic. Second Federal Republic. La Reforma Reform War French intervention. El Economista. Retrieved Cline, Mexico: Revolution to Evolution, — Oxford: Oxford University Press , p. Cline, The United States and Mexico , revised edition.
New York: Atheneum Press, , p.